The following are just some conditions that can cause foot pain and discomfort, that may require a visit to the Grannell Footcare and Orthotic Clinic.

Conditions Brief Description
Nail Condition

–          Thickened

–          Fungal

–          Involuted    

–          Ingrown


Abnormal thickening of the nail, often due to trauma, age, fungal infection, poor circulation.

Fungal infection of the nail bed and nail plate

A nail that has curved inwards, can precede an ingrown nail.

A spike, shoulder or serrated edge of the nail has pierced the skin on the inside or top of the nail


Corns Inverted areas of hard skin, can vary in size and can be very painful – occur in areas of excessive stress or friction.
Callus Thickened hard skin – often yellowish in appearance – occur in areas of excessive intermittent mechanical stress
Toe Deformities Clawed, hammer, mallet and curly– caused by genetics, abnormal biomechanics, deformities or muscle imbalance and can lead to corns and callus due to mal-alignment of digits.
Verruca (HPV Virus) Skin viral infection leading to the formation of ‘warts’ or ‘verruca’s’ on the sole of the foot
Plantar Fasciitis Common painful condition, characterised by pain along the arch of the foot often radiating from the heel forward. Pain is significantly worse first thing in the morning or after periods of prolonged sitting.
Heel Pain Heel pain can be caused by a variety of conditions

–          Heel pain syndrome

–          Plantar fascia rupture

–          Fad pad atrophy

–          Stress fracture of calcaneus

–          Plantar fasciitis

–          Plantar fibromatosis

–          Tendonitis of the flexor hallucis longus tendon

–          Nerve entrapment

–          Injury

Diagnosis can be made after a thorough history and biomechanical assessment.

Achilles Tendinitis Painful inflammation of the Achilles tendon
Leg Length Discrepancy Unequal leg length can alter the biomechanics of the lower leg and spine causing compensation through the body leading to pain or discomfort. Can be caused due a multitude of reasons

–          Congenital

–          Idiopathic

–          Hip conditions

–          Post-surgery – hip and knee replacement

–          Fractures

–          Some disease e.g. polio.

Posterior Tibialis Tendon Dysfunction Progressive condition causing pain on the medial arch due to a direct loss of function from the posterior tibialis tendon.
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Entrapment of the posterior tibial nerve, causing nerve pain (pins and needles, tingling, burning, loss of feeling) pain along the sole of the foot. The pain is often worse with prolonged standing or weight bearing.
Cerebral Palsy Chronic, non-progressive disorder affecting motor function and mental status in some patients. Gait and mobility can be mildly or several affecting with foot deformities and pathologies common.
Foot Drop Reduced/absent function of the muscles that dorsiflex or lift the foot during swing phase of gait
Polio/post-polio syndrome A viral infection that affected the central nervous system. Resulted in loss of function and deformity development in the lower limbs. Polio has been eradicated in the Western world, however post-polio syndrome has caused a return or worsen of existing physical conditions.
Spina Bifida Failure of the closure to the spinal cord – severity can vary dramatically. Interruption/failure in the spinal cord development can affect the muscle balance in the lower limb, altering foot position therefore resulting in deformities.
Diabetes Diabetes is a metabolic disorder, characterised by the bodies lack or inability to process insulin. Complications of the disease can have serious implications in the foot in regards peripheral neuropathy, where the body has lost sensation. This can lead to serious complication such as ulceration and amputation.
Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) RA is a chronic inflammatory arthritis. This inflammation can lead to joint damage and functional limitations resulting in severe deformities and dysfunction of the feet.
Osteoarthritis (OA) A condition where there is a progress loss of articular cartilage – affecting the big toe, knee, hip, wrist and shoulder, although can be present in any joint.
Hallux Abducto Valgus (HAV)/Bunion A forefoot deformity, characterised by malalignment of the big toe which can protrude.
Hallux Limitus/Hallux Rigidus Conditions affecting the movement of the big toe joint causing a varying degree of pain/discomfort during gait.
Tarsal Coalitions Congenital or acquired – fusion of the some of the tarsal joints – fusion can be bony or cartilage and the most common is seen between the calcaneus and navicular bone.
Paediatric Conditions

–          Severs Disease

–          Kohlers

–          Freiberg’s disease


Calcaneal apophysitis – heel pain, especially in the very active males between 10-14 years of age

Disease of the navicular bone, causing pain in the mid-foot

Avascular necrosis affecting the 2nd (sometimes 3rd) metatarsal – more common in teenage girls

Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (CTEV/Clubfoot) Deformity of the feet (both or one) diagnosed at birth.  It is more common in boys than girls and treatment is started immediately following birth.
Hypermobility Generalised joint laxity, can cause alterations in foot position due to lack of joint stability

More information on conditions will follow 🙂

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